VAT is a consumption tax imposed by the national government. Different types of VAT exist.
Upon import, import VAT applies in which case the VAT is calculated on the basis of the value of the goods, the total transportation costs, any additional costs (insurance costs, packaging costs) and customs duties (for example, import duties, excise duties and anti-dumping levies).
Upon local sales, supply VAT applies which is a standard % over the transaction value.
The VAT rate depends on the type of product. A list of VAT rates per EU country can be found here EC.